Science and technology (IPTEK) is developing very rapidly from year to year, which is marked by various new discoveries. One of the sectors that is affected by this advance in science and technology is animal husbandry, especially in the field of animal reproduction in order to increase the productivity of livestock.
Animal reproduction studies at various research institutions have resulted in technology being applied to various animal species. Reproductive technology in animals is a way of animal reproduction using certain equipment quickly and efficiently.
The purpose of this is to obtain better traits and characters from the parent or to improve the quality of the offspring.
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Animal reproduction technology available today comes in many forms, from simple natural mating aids to cloning adults with very complex procedures. For more details, let’s look at the explanation!
Artificial Insemination (Injection Mating)
Artificial insemination (IB) or injection mating is the process of inserting sperm fluid (semen) from male animals into the reproductive tract of female animals with human assistance. Sperm fluid is inserted by injection, so this method makes it very easy for animals to be able to produce children because male animals do not have to mate with female animals directly.
Artificial insemination has several benefits, namely cost efficiency, time efficiency, and quality improvement. For example, Brahman cattle semen from India is inseminated in local heifers with the aim of producing calves with better meat quality.
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In carrying out artificial insemination requires semen from male animals that have superior quality. The semen is then stored at a low temperature so that the semen does not get damaged and die, because sperm cells are very susceptible to heat.
Cloning is the creation of an organism by imitating another organism. Where, cloning is done using animal body cells to then be developed into a whole individual. The resulting offspring have the exact same characteristics and characteristics as the parent, for example, if the cells used for cloning are from female animals, the resulting offspring will also be female.
The first clone was made by Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1996 and was named Dolly (a goat). Where, taking the egg cells from the ovaries of the ewe and taking the mammary gland cells from other ewes, then removing the nucleus of the egg cells and inserting the nucleus of the mammary gland cells into the egg cells that no longer have a nucleus.
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Then the egg which contains mammary gland cells is inserted into the uterus of the sheep and the sheep will become pregnant and give birth to the cloned lamb.